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Tiny Tips: ICH for ICH – Brain Herniation

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Amit Persad1 Comment

Brain herniation is a catastrophic sequela of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or local mass effect from intracranial lesions. Different types of brain herniation can occur depending on the location of mass effect and how rapidly this mass effect develops.1 Any mass lesion, including hemorrhage, tumor, vasogenic or cytotoxic edema, trauma or infection can cause herniation. However spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common causes of herniation in the acute …

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Tiny Tips: “TREADMILLS” Peripheral Neuropathy mnemonic

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Sean PatrickLeave a Comment

Peripheral neuropathy is prevalent in up to 2.4% of the general population1. It is often characterized by an asymmetric distribution with sensory symptoms following a dermatomal pattern. Initial investigations include a complete blood count (CBC), metabolic panel (electrolytes, glucose, urea, creatinine), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)2. There are many causes for peripheral neuropathy, so when considering the etiology, think “TREADMILLS.” Toxins Ethanol, Heavy metals, Tetanus, Organophosphates, Diphtheria Renal Failure Endocrine Diabetes, Hypothyroidism Acquired …

Tiny Tips: “C-3PO’s RIVAL” Acute Unilateral Painless Vision Loss mnemonic

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Sean PatrickLeave a Comment

Early diagnosis and treatment of acute, painless vision loss greatly increases the chances of vision restoration. Though treatment for most conditions involves an ophthalmology consult, it is important to consider and evaluate for the possible etiologies. A mnemonic to remember the list of causes for acute unilateral painless vision loss is “C-3PO’s RIVAL”.1 Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO) Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD) Optic Neuritis …

The Use of the Modified Valsalva Maneuver for Stable SVT

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Paula SneathLeave a Comment

Please note that, while “supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)” is a term that can be used more broadly to refer to any tachyarrhythmia originating above the ventricles, I use its more conventional meaning here to describe AVnRT and AVRT. LITFL has a good summary of narrow-complex tachycardias. SVT is a narrow complex tachycardia commonly seen in the emergency department. In hemodynamically stable patients the first-line treatment is vagal stimulation, usually the Valsalva maneuver. However, success …

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Tiny Tips: “SNOOP MEETS Pregnancy” Headache mnemonic

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Sean PatrickLeave a Comment

Many must-not-miss diagnoses manifest as a secondary headache. Though the DDx list is quite large, the pertinent questions that must be asked on history can be remembered using the mnemonic “SNOOP MEETS Pregnancy”1,2 Below you’ll find the cues associated with each letter, the symptoms they are associated with, and the differential diagnosis for some of those symptoms. Systemic symptoms = fever, night sweats, weight loss, loss of appetite, protracted vomiting DDx: Meningitis, Encephalitis, Systemic infection, Lyme …

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Tiny Tip: Back Pain Differential Mnemonic

In Medical Concepts, Tiny Tips by Carly RumleyLeave a Comment

Back pain is a common presentation to the Emergency Department. It is associated with disability, health care expenses, and a loss of wages and productivity. When caring for a patient and developing a back pain differential diagnosis, remember to consider age, the history, physical exam findings, laboratory results, and imaging (if needed). Be sure to keep in mind the red flags for back pain that include: history of IV drug use, history of …