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Tiny Tips: Hematuria: IS THIS PP RED?

In Tiny Tips by Alex SengerLeave a Comment

Mnemonics to remember differential diagnoses are usually cumbersome, difficult to remember, and unnecessary. However, sometimes one stands above the crowd. Sometimes, one is so perfect that the world around you seems brighter… the greens greener… the sky bluer… your lunch tastier… Feel your mental status exam improve as I present to you “IS THIS PP RED?” for hematuria. The best part about the mnemonic? – The two most important etiologies are first! This …

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Tiny Tips: The 6 S’s Mnemonic for Mitigating Cognitive Bias in the Emergency Department

In Tiny Tips by Jason WangLeave a Comment

The chaos and rapidity associated with the ED make it an environment much more prone to diagnostic error.1 96% of these incidents involving missed diagnoses can be attributed to various cognitive biases/factors.2 The consequence of these biases ultimately lead to incomplete H/P’s (20-42% of errors),2,3 failure to consider competing diagnoses (32% of errors),3 or failure to order or follow-up on investigations (44-58% of errors).2,3 So what can be done? Presented below are 6 …

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Tiny Tips: BRADIE for Differential Causes of Bradycardia

In Tiny Tips by Isaac KimLeave a Comment

Bradycardia is a very common finding in patients presenting to the emergency department. In 2018, over 18,000 pacemakers were inserted in Canada alone for severe dysrhythmia management.​1​ However, there are many causes of bradycardia that exist. Knowing and identifying the underlying causes of bradycardias is critical to emergency department management and disposition. The following mnemonic, BRADIE, is a helpful tool for remembering various causes of bradycardia during the clinical assessment of these patients. …

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Tiny Tips: PETMAC as a mnemonic for the 6 deadly causes of chest pain

In Tiny Tips by Samantha BuchananLeave a Comment

An estimated 300,000-500,000 patients present to the emergency department (ED) every year inCanada with complaints of chest pain.​1​ In USA, the numbers are even more staggering at 8million per year.​2​ Given its prevalence, having a structured and rapid approach to chest pain isessential. Use the mnemonic PETMAC as an approach to these 6 cannot-miss causes of chestpain in the ED. Just think of your friendly neighbourhood pet, Mac! P: Pulmonary Embolism Classically presents …

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Tiny Tips: The COWS Scale

In Tiny Tips, TipsForEMExams by Isabelle GrayLeave a Comment

As the opiate crisis continues to escalate, emergency departments are seeing higher numbers of patients with complaints and complications related to opiate use disorder. There is strong evidence for opiate agonist treatment in preventing opiate related deaths. Additionally, Suboxone (buprenorphine-naloxone) is the recommended first line treatment.​1​ Suboxone Treatment For a full Suboxone start, a patient is required to be in moderate withdrawal, meaning a Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score of greater than …